Dental implantology is a discipline in dental medicine that, as the name implies, deals with implants, or, more precisely, with their installation. It is interdisciplinary because it includes stomatology, surgery, biology, biomechanics and similar disciplines. The main objective of the implant installations is the replacement of the root of the lost teeth. Implantology is a relatively young discipline considering that has appeared only in the second half of the past century.
What is an implant?
An implant is actually the replacement for a root of a tooth. It is a screw of precisely defined size that is installed in the bone of the jaw. It is made of titanium, a precious metal, the only one compatible with human bones. The decision of the installment of the implant is made on the basis of a digital orthopan and a computed tomography (CT), i.e. the scan of the jaw. One or more teeth can be replaced with the help of implantology, and the implant is the base, or, rather, the carrier of the prosthetic replacement. Prosthesis and dental bridges can be attached to the implants, but one implant can also replace only one tooth if only that one is missing from the teeth row.
Prosthesis on implants
Prosthesis on implants are an ideal solution for patients who have a strong and healthy jaw but complete loss of teeth. They can be installed on the upper or lower jaw and they are extremely easy to maintain hygienically. There are two types of prosthesis on implants: ones are impacted (supported) with crossbars, and the others are supported with spheres (trackers). After a detailed analysis of the overall situation in each patient, a stomatologist has to define the type of retention adequate for each individual patient.
Dental bridges on implants
Dental bridges on implants are used to lower the loading from the individual implant, i.e. in the cases when the patient misses more than one tooth. The process of installation of dental bridges on the implants differs from the one of the prosthesis installation. Namely, the implantation and the time necessary for the doctor to assure that the implants are completely integrated in the bones, follows the implant impression making and the installation of the upgrades (which „imitate“ the tooth). Dental bridges are installed on those upgrades.
Implantology is safe and successful
Although implantology is a discipline that deals with routine and very safe treatments, the surgeon implantologist must note a detailed medical history of every patient before every treatment, in order to be able to warn him about a few things. Firstly, people with heart problems, or under immunosuppression therapy, as well as patients with expressed allergies must warn their stomatologist about those problems due to the possible complications that can emerge during this as any other surgical operation. Normally, implants can be installed in all patients regardless of their age. For what the efficacy of the treatment is concerned, the unofficial data talks about somewhere in between 95 and 100% of patients being satisfied after the procedure after which they can much easily eat and speak, and another benefit is that nice teeth and smile improve their self-confidence.
The process of implant installation
The process of the installation of implants consists of a series of interventions: the installation of the implant, the time necessary for the osseointegration of the implant (that usually lasts 3 months) although can be shorter (in cases of immediate loading, i.e. the immediate placing of the work on the implant) or longer (even up to 6 months if so is estimated by the implantologist after the implantation and the estimation of the bone and the primary stabilization of the implant); followed by the taking of the impression of the teeth, the execution of the work (whether it is a mobile prosthesis supported by implants or a fixated work, i.e. bridge or independent crown), and the final fixation of the definitive work on the implants (again, depending on the type of work, it can be cemented, fixated with screws or simply leaned on the implants).